In this chapter Carson first notes why scaling and measuring Christian commitment from nominalism to fanaticism is mischievous.  The reason is because the grace of God truly humbles us.  It is radically loving, forgiving, and generous.  That is because unlike other religions whose focus is on effort and moral improvement, such that the result is self-righteous, bigoted, over-confident, condescending people, Christianity is different when one is biblically faithful.

For Christianity underscores the fact of grace that transforms a Biblically faithful living out of the regenerated life where salvation is by grace, and is based on Christ’s work on our behalf, not on our own achievements.  This changes everything!  Even though true Christians have done awful things (e.g., Crusades, Slavery, etc.), it’s the very Christian message previously ignored that challenged and eventually toppled these enterprises.[1]  Christianity has often apologized for the Crusades but Islam has not.

Second, Carson considers the fact that something has to be ultimate.  If God is not ultimate then it will be the creature’s creation; be it the State, the Dictator, or any other idea. The reason for this is our “mannishness” which is designed to worship the Creator and when He is not then inevitably the image bearer concocts something to worship. 

            The gospel calls out people, gathers them together, and transforms them.  Thus, any so-called Christianity that does not incorporate the aforesaid reality into its vision, is not worthy of the name it carries.  For according to Ephesians 2:8-10 believers are saved by grace through faith in order to do the good works God prepared for them to walk in.  This means that new birth necessarily produces the fruit of the “new creation,” and while good works don’t secure our salvation, they attest to the genuineness of it.  Transformation must occur!

            Third, Carson considers whether or not one can be a biblically faithful Christian and separate themselves entirely from a local church.  He answers absolutely not and rightly so!  Consider Paul’s take in (Ephesians 2:11-22):

11 Therefore remember that formerly you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called “Uncircumcision” by the so-called “Circumcision,” which is performed in the flesh by human hands— 12 remember that you were at that time separate from Christ, excluded from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who formerly were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ. 14 For He Himself is our peace, who made both groups into one and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall, 15 by abolishing in His flesh the enmity, which is the Law of commandments contained in ordinances, so that in Himself He might make the two into one new man, thus establishing peace, 16 and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by it having put to death the enmity. 17 And He came and preached peace to you who were far away, and peace to those who were near; 18 for through Him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 19 So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God’s household, 20 having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone, 21 in whom the whole building, being fitted together, is growing into a holy temple in the Lord, 22 in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling of God in the Spirit.

             The church is God’s household where we are being built up into a holy temple where Christ Jesus is the chief cornerstone.  In the Old Testament circumcision was the mark pointing to the one who belonged to the redeemed community.  In the New Testament baptism is the initiation one receives in order to join the ChurchThis is flows from the reality of new-birth in the early church.

In this community God speaks, sanctifies, transforms, and puts many into leadership positions.  The church is not a building, but rather the gathered people of God.  Thus, Biblically faithful churched people (while not perfectly) are the people of God who reflect His character among themselves and the world.

            Fourth, Carson speaks to the reasons for why Christians are moved to obey from a posture of gratitude for what Christ has done.    He points out that looking at things is utterly transforming because they force us to see that empty handed we came to the cross and filled with treasure we leave.  Where we once thirsted, now we are satisfied and this is apart from anything we do or bring, because it’s all based on what Christ has done and given to us—new creation! (Eph. 4:17-5:10)

            And while moral structures are definitely here, they are never nor ever can be the basis for gratitude when we see the gospel exemplified on Calvary’s cross.  We’ve been so deeply forgiven, how can we hold a grudge?  We’ve been given the Spirit securing our future inheritance how then can we be stingy and clinch to fleeting treasure? We are destined to be with Almighty God Forever!  Hence, everything changes!

            Fifth, Carson considers why greed is labeled idolatry.  The reason is because what you most want becomes your god.  It displaces God who is ultimate, it makes me long for that which is contingent, finite, and at the end of the day—what will fail me!  It’s the looking for our identity in someone or something other than God, that’s why it’s labeled greed.

            Sixth, Carson accentuates that for the Christian suffering is both a privilege and a sign of grace.  Suffering transforms our attitudes when we obey Jesus’ command to follow him, “take up your cross and follow me”.  This is stunning and too often utterly missed in the church.  Crucifixion was brutal, it was torture. (Mt. 16:24).  Death to self-interest is the point.  Though most of us will not be tortured for our faith, all of us face the issue of saying to God, “My will, not Yours’ be done, sorry–God”.  The scripture reveals that it’s been granted to us not only to believe on Christ but also to suffer on his behalf (Phil.1:29).

Both belief and suffering are equally gifts from God to us.  This is so counter-intuitive that unless it were so clear, I would today still miss it as I read these same words early in my Christianity and just glossed over them as impertinent to my situation.  Amy Carmichael and Jacob DeShazer have stories that depict a life of self-sacrifice where self-pity was not nurtured, but the transforming power that the gospel brings was exemplified.

            Seventh, Carson reflects on John Newton’s life and the lesson we can learn from him.  It goes something like, “that while I sin and do fall down, The Lord does lift me from the ground, And while I hate the sin I see, I’m not the man I used to be, For grace has given me new life, And when in death I close my eyes, Christ’s loving arms will be my prize.  That’s profound.

[1] I don’t think that all of the Crusaders were evil, but those who in their activity crossed the boundaries between what is clearly contra Christ’s teaching to hate what is evil and cling to that which is good.  See Rodney Starks book,  GOD’S BATTALIONS: The Case for the Crusades, © 2009 by Rodney Stark, Harper One, Harper Collins Publishing Company, New York, NY


romanaureusaeliusobv240Chapter one established why Paul was so eager to preach the gospel of God the Son, Jesus of Nazareth—because God’s just wrath has been poured out, revealed, toward the creature (humans, and the whole created order) because humanity exchanged God’s glory, righteousness and truth for a lie, unrighteousness and perversion.  Rebellion is thus justly judged and God unfolds this truth through the behavior in which image bearers choose to revel.

In this section (Vv.1-16) Paul continues to explain why God’s wrath is not only just, but as such, is also impartial (both Jew and Greek—all people—are under condemnation), calling everyone to account.  He begins by stating:

“Therefore you have no excuse, everyone of you who passes judgment, for in that which you judge another, you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things. And we know that the judgment of God rightly falls upon those who practice such things.

First, note that the “therefore” references his previous argument in chapter 1:24 and further to verse 18, where “God’s wrath is revealed”.  This wrath, as previously noted, is just because men rebelled knowingly, not in ignorance.  That is why the text three times repeats the phrase, “God gave them over” (Vv.24, 26, 28).  This seems to demonstrate the culpability of the creature and the rightness of the judge’s sentence.

Second, those passing judgment are justly condemned because they don’t practice what they preach.  This is not righteousness but unrighteousness.  It’s not the obedience of faith but the disobedience of wickedness.  And, it seems to be directed at Jews who pride themselves in having the very Law they break!  How?  They break it by not bowing to Jesus—the author and fulfillment of that Law.

Paul here assures the reader that merely hearing the word without doing it is unrighteousness and God justly condemns that also.  These are storing up wrath for themselves on the day God rewards each person according to their deeds (Vv.3-6). Thus, up to this point, rebellion by the creature has brought just wrath from the Creator and a final day of judgment awaits us all.  What will this day bring to people?

“ 7to those who by perseverance in doing good seek for glory and honor and immortality, eternal life; but to those who are selfishly ambitious and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, wrath and indignation.”    

 In other words, those who submit to the gospel of Christ will receive eternal life, but those who reject it will receive their just damnation.  How did I come to that conclusion?  Only those who are just (1:17) live by faith or trust in the God of creation.  This faith produces the fruit of obedience (however imperfectly) toward the Son of God which is evidenced in the refusal of the creature to exchange the glory of the incorruptible God for a false god (1:23).  These obey the truth unlike the unrighteous who suppress it (1:18, 23).

A word on suppressing the truth: while this marks the non-believers bent, even believers at times fall into this pit of sin.  It’s not that a believer can’t and won’t from time to time suppress the truth of God in unrighteousness, it’s that now as God’s adopted child, their life is not bent toward this, but toward honoring the one true God and Jesus Christ whom He sent.

Paul explains that the object of our worship determines whether eternal life or wrath awaits.  If the Creator is worshipped, then life eternal results, but if the creature is adored, then eternal condemnation is the end.  This day awaits all humanity—Jew and Greek alike and each one will be recompensed accordingly by the impartial God of creation (2:9-11).

He continues his thought on our recompense and affirms that whether or not one has the Law, they will be judged for the light they possess (2:12-15):

16on the day when, according to my gospel, God will judge the secrets of men through Christ Jesus.

The apostle’s gospel is rife with the Day of Judgment.  All is not well for the hearer.  Much introspection is called for to both Jew and Gentile alike.  This reminds us of the obedience of faith (1:5) which is Paul’s aim among the Gentiles.  It’s a life energized by the living God which causes a life to be bent toward him.

God is not partial, judgment awaits us all (Jew and Gentile).  Therefore, we should take another look at our lives and see if it comports with Paul’s gospel.  Here, the lip and life match.  If they don’t, we should repent and receive God’s mercy.  (SDG)