Justin Martyr, First Apology
In his first Apology, Justin addresses the Roman Emperor; Pius Augustus Caesar, his sons Versimmus and Lucius, both of which are philosophers, the Senate and all of the Roman people. Martyr’s chief concern is regarding the injustice Christians are suffering at the hands of Roman authorities. The Christian worldview is being egregiously misrepresented, and as such, Justin challenges these “lovers of truth” (the philosophers) to listen to reason, and to investigate to see whether or not the allegations raised against believers are warranted.
First, Christians are being condemned for simply bearing the name. Justin points out that a mere name does not constitute whether one is evil or good, but rather the actions one does or does not commit should condemn or acquit them.
Second, Christians are charged of being atheists and Justin points out that they are atheists of a certain kind. This atheism is not equivalent to our modern usage of the word. Instead, it concerns the refusal of Christians to worship the pantheon of Roman gods, which Justin rightly labels as “demons”, which are not gods at all. Instead Christians acknowledge only Jesus Christ as God, the only one worthy to be worshipped.
Third, Justin accentuates the need for Christians individually to be tried to see if they actually are evildoers, and if found guilty, they ought to be punished. But to merely condemn one for bearing the name “Christian” lacks reason, and it is a travesty of justice.
Fourth, Justin points out the foolishness of idol worship and demonstrates how God is to be served. Idols are nothing but soulless dead representations of contingent beings (creatures) and as such, to worship them is not only senseless but an offense to God (creator). Since God is the only necessary being, he is the source of all things, and as such, the service that God accepts, must conform to the excellencies that reside in Him. Moreover, Justin points out that the Christians worship is rational and is based on Christ’s teaching, who among other things, calls all men to repentance from dead works to serve the living God.
Fifth, Justin continues with a litany of Christ’s teaching found in the Gospels. Concerning truth telling, the believer is to let “your yes be yes, and your no, no”. Regarding civil obedience, give to Caesar what belongs to him, and to God what belongs to Him. Here, Justin distinguishes the proper relationship the Christian is to have with the state and with God.
Sixth, Justin answers the heathen analogies to Christian doctrine, to the history of Christ and to his Sonship and points out that although there are similarities, truth and redemption are only found in Christ Jesus the Lord. Since the aforementioned obtains, Christians have abandoned the worship of false gods, the practice of sorcery, and promiscuous behavior.
Seventh, Martyr points out that the life and works of Christ are predicted in the Hebrew prophets, and as such uses fulfilled prophecy to argue for the veracity of Christian doctrine. He starts off with Moses describing the time of Jesus’ coming and his passion. Then Isaiah (the most quoted prophet) describes the predicted virgin birth, reign, and crucifixion of Christ, while Micah describes Bethlehem as the place of his birth. Furthermore, the Psalmist predicts his incarnation, crucifixion, and ascension. Justin also points out that Judea’s desolation, Christ’s healing ministry, and rejection by the Jews are also foretold. Hence, if what was foretold has already been fulfilled, for Justin, it stands to reason that the predictions not yet fulfilled, will be. And are thus worthy to be believed.
Eighth, Justin explains that even though demons have instituted the rite of baptism in their temples, true baptism is reserved only for those who are born again. He continues to explain that partaking of the Eucharist is reserved only for those who have been regenerated and baptized. He finally explains the reason they worship on Sunday and explains their liturgy.
Justin concludes his letter in the manner in which he started, he appeals to reason and justice. He challenges his audience, if the material presented is reasonable and true, and then they should honor it and not decree the innocent to be killed. If it is nonsensical, they should totally disregard it. He then warns them that they will not escape the coming judgment of God if they do not stop their injustice.
 Martyr, Justin, “The First Apology of Justin,” The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume I, pp.163-187,) T & T
Clark Edinburgh, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Reprinted in 1996).