CATHOLICISM IN FRANCE: 1800-50 [Pp.171-179]
Cardinal César de La Luzerne (A.D. 1738-1821) in his Pastoral Instruction on the Excellence of Religion; lays down the principal of showing Christianity’s beauty because its knowledge was so odious to non-Christians. Here, the Cardinal focuses on the aesthetics of religion.
Francois René de Chateaubriand (A.D. 1768-1848) in his Beauties of the Christian Religion uses aesthetics as a means to do apologetics. He held that Dogmas and Doctrines find their beauty in their mystery; Christianity stimulates the poetic and drama; Fine arts and literature are depicted in the music of the Gregorian chant, seen in the art of Raphael and Michelangelo; and the liturgy is also beautiful. Through his use of the arts, Francois used this apologetic as an attempt to reach his culture.
Vicomte Louis de Bonald (A.D. 1754-1840) a French nobleman; held that the essential truths needed to live a human life are beyond the reach of rational inquiry, but have been revealed by God since the dawn of time.
CATHOLICISM IN GERMANY: 1800-50 [Pp.179-181]
Johann Sebastian von Drey (A.D. 1777-1853) was the founder of the Catholic Tubingen School. In his Apologetics as a Scientific Demonstration of the Divinity of Christianity, he understands apologetics to be a mixed discipline of philosophy, philosophy of religion especially, and it’s material contents from the history of religions. In this work he focuses on the General philosophy of revelation; the Tradition scope in revelation; and the relationship between Christianity and Judaism. His work is valuable for its recognition of Christianity’s historicity, the multi-facets of the revelation, and the organic view of tradition and the Church.
CATHOLICISM IN SPAIN AND ITALY: 1800-50 [Pp.181-183]
ENGLISH SPEAKING CATHOLICS IN ENGLAND: 1800-50 [Pp.184-189]
John Henry Newman (A.D. 1801-90) was the leading Catholic apologist of the 19th century and one of the greatest of all times. A cautious and critical thinker, he was at all times concerned with the criteria of religious knowledge.
In his An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, Newman gives reasons for why the Roman Catholic Church is the successor of the early Church. Newman seeks to show that the Catholic Church has followed an organic development that is proof of its continuity with the past to biblical revelation.
In his An Essay on the Development of a Grammar of Assent, Newman seeks to diagnose how man comes to his convictions of knowledge and understanding especially in religious matters. Understanding the subjective element in all religious inquiry, he casts his apologetic in an autobiographical scheme. He approaches the Christian evidences with a whole set of presumptions and hopes to provide the clue to complex materials of religious history.
ENGLISH SPEAKING CATHOLICS IN THE U.S.: 1800-50 [Pp.189-191]
CATHOLICISM IN CONTINENTAL EUROPE: FRANCE AND BELGIUM; VATICAN COUNCIL I 1850-1900 [Pp.191-195]
Vatican Council I (A.D. 1869-70) took up the relations between faith and reason, where primary focus was given to the conflict between science and religion.
Abbé Paul de Broglie (A.D. 1834-95) was professor of apologetics at the Institut Catholique at Paris. In his Positivism and Experimental Science, he dealt with the theory of knowledge. While affirming the contributions metaphysics made to the apologetic enterprise, he understood that it was the most difficult of the sciences and as such, he avoided that approach. Instead, Abbé used purely inductive arguments that were universally recognized historical facts where he argues for Christianity’s transcendence and it’s divine origin.
CATHOLICISM IN CONTINENTAL EUROPE: GERMANY 1850-1900 [Pp.195-196]
PROTESTANTISM: GERMANY 1850-1900 [Pp.197-198]
Albrecht Ritschl (A.D. 1822-89) was a liberal theologian who understood that the kingdom was a communion of love, as the heart of Jesus’ message. This message is self-authenticating and therefore needs no apologetic.
Julius Kaftan (A.D. 1848-1926) in his The Truth of the Christian Religion, Julius uses a teleological approach to his apologetic for Christianity and that if we have not revelation, it’s hard to make sense out of human history as a whole or even understand the questions of origins.
Hermann Schultz (A.D. 1836-1903) in his Outlines of Christian Apologetics, Hermann rests his defense of Christianity on ethical grounds. The purely ethical content of the Gospel could never be overthrown by scientific discovery.
PROTESTANTISM: THE ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES 1850-1900 [Pp.198-201]
J.B. Lightfoot, the English scholar who wrote Essays on the work of ‘Supernatural Religion, and used his massive understanding in the area of origins to decimate his British opponents.
Darwin’s: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection brought about many conservative pens in response to his views; Charles Hodge the theologian form Princeton, Mark Hopkins, William Gladstone who wrote The Impregnable Rock of Holy Scripture, Princeton’s President James McCosh who penned Christianity and Positivism.
Alexander B. Bruce (1892) wrote Christianity Defensively Stated, where he
sketches out the Christian worldview of origins and compares them to other systems. In it, he deals with Wellhausen’s theory of the Old Testament and with the authorship and historicity of the New Testament Gospels. His approach is more Biblical than epistemological.
During this period apologetics came to the forefront as a distinct theological discipline. Moreover, the relationship between apologetics and philosophy cannot be separated, and the rise of the scientific era brought about new challenges that had to be met head on.
MY THOUGHTS_POST-SCRIPT Sergio R. Tangari
There’s a treasure trove of wisdom the church has at its disposal that is too often neglected either through: ignorance (i.e., people don’t read Church History), or perhaps through spite (i.e., Protestants and Catholics refuse to appreciate one another’s contributions), even a lack of evangelistic urgency (i.e., Believers don’t really care to share their beliefs because of fear, indifference, etc.), perhaps because of an unbiblical view of the life of the mind as it informs our daily living (i.e., a Fideistic bent).
To the believer, remember that the Great Commandment to Love God and neighbor includes the Mind, not just the Heart. If you don’t get better at thinking, you are neglecting what Jesus clearly modeled of how to love God with thought, argumentation, and wit.
To the skeptic, remember that you just like any other creature will decide to ultimately believe and obey someone’s word. Because of the claims of Christ (I.e., the uncreated Creator, who is the self-existent One who took on humanity so that God’s wrath would pass over us, the only redeemer of humanity and all others are imposters), and because of the stakes that naturally flow from his claims, it seems prudent and to your advantage to consider out said claims.
How is this done? First begin with reading the primary source documents (the Old and New Testament) and give primacy to the eyewitness accounts, rather than those who many years later claim to know, but are ignorant about the Man Christ Jesus.
Second, find believers that appreciate your skepticism and won’t be afraid to consider the questions raised, but instead these people engage honestly, cogently and recognize they too don’t have all the answers. These persons have a knack to be both logical and visceral, clear headed and tender hearted.
Third, understand that your time like everyone else’s is limited, so consider if on your journey time is being wasted and remove said obstacles (e.g., endlessly listening to social media forums that are given to ad-hominem attacks, rather than arguing about ideas).
Fourth, if you think these people are hard to find, or don’t exist when it comes to talking about ultimate issues…they do, and they are out there. But please don’t kid yourself through the empty rhetoric of the day that separates reason from faith, religion from science, the private from the public. Those paradigms are bogus, irrational and keep you enslaved to actual lies that are parroted in the hallowed halls of academia, media, and pop-culture by people that don’t care (really) at the end of the day, to consider the God question, the meaning of life question, the life and death question, the Jesus of Nazareth question.