Calvin On Predestination (Institutes)
The Doctrine of Election
In Calvin’s treatise On Predestination, he first addresses the doctrine of eternal election, where some are predestined to salvation and others to destruction. He begins by affirming that neglecting this doctrine essentially impairs God’s glory and produces pride in the individual. He admonishes both the inquirers and those shunning the doctrine of predestination, to stay within the bounds of scripture, rather than venture into what God has concealed, for everything we need to know is contained therein. When God ceases revealing, we cease wanting to be wise. Calvin understood that profane men would scoff and cavil this doctrine, but it is not to deter one from its inquiry. For scoffers will always find something to poke fun at.
Predestination is the Eternal Decree of God
For Calvin, predestination is “the eternal decree of God by which he determined with himself whatever he wished to happen with regard to every man,” God testifying his election of Israel in (Dt.32: 8, 9; 4: 37; 7: 7, 8; 10: 14, 15; Ps.47: 4; 33: 12; 1 Sam. 12:22; Is. 41:9 etc.). God also shows His rejection of Ishmael, Esau, Saul, and Ephraim (Ps. 78: 67, 68; 147: 20; Mal.1: 2, 3; Rom. 9:8; Gal. 3:16; etc.). Though in the line of Abraham, they were rotten, not the remnant. Hence, in God’s eternal and immutable council some were elected for salvation, and others to perdition.
Calvin makes a case for election from Scripture contra those who interpret election, as those who God foreknew would not be worthy of his grace. His election is certainly not based on man’s inherent worth, for it precedes works. As Paul declares God’s choosing us (i.e., believers) before the foundation of the world (Eph. 1:4, 5; Col. 1:12; cf., 1 Tim. 2:9). Jesus himself explicitly demonstrates God choosing us not based on past merits, but on God’s mercy (John. 15:16). Again, Paul shows that the origin and cause of election proceed not from works of merit, but from God’s good pleasure (Rom. 9:11). Calvin disagrees with those that assign election to past or future works, for he understands that God finds nothing in man to show him kindness (Rom. 9:15).
Moreover, Peter accentuates God accomplishing the believer’s salvation by his own determinate foreknowledge in Christ’s death (Acts 2:23). Election is further supported by the Father’s donation to Jesus, “All that the Father gives me shall come to me” (John 6: 37, 39, 44, 45; 17:9; 12; 13:18;). These texts demonstrate God’s gratuitous adoption of those whom according to his good pleasure, he wishes to be his sons, because God is contented with his secret pleasure. Calvin then considers the church fathers on this issue (Ambrose, Origin, Jerome, Augustine, and Aquinas) understanding that Augustine got the doctrine correctly in his later years and continues dealing with objections to his position.
Responding To Objections
Calvin deals with several objections to his view and responds accordingly. He first addresses those who object that God makes anyone reprobate, and reminds his dissenters that Paul does not try to defend God, but simply reminds us that it is unlawful for the creature to argue with the Creator. Calvin further shows that the reprobate, are those trees not planted by the Father who are doomed to destruction (Mt. 15:13).
A second objection is that it seems unjust and capricious for God to doom some to destruction before they have committed any wrongs. Calvin’s response is that because of God’s ontological status (being righteous), he does not commit any lawlessness, and by the mere fact of his willing (in election), is necessarily right. A further objection is that God seems to be a cruel judge by preordaining the reprobate’s sin. But, Calvin defends the justice of God with Paul’s words, “…O man, who are thou that replies against God…” (Rom. 9:20-21). This passage couches God’s infinite mind, to man’s finitude. The last objection we will consider is the charge that Scripture nowhere declares that God decreed Adam’s fall. Calvin responds that Scripture proclaims all mankind was in Adam, made liable to eternal death. The decree is dreadful, but it is impossible to deny that God foreknew man’s end before being created. To do so, is rash and not advised.
Election Confirmed by God’s Calling
Calvin deals with election confirmed by God’s calling and the reprobate bring upon themselves the righteous destruction to which they are doomed. Calvin admits that election is God’s secret, but is manifest in his effectual calling. He then deals with the metaphysics of said calling and concludes that it is founded on God’s free mercy. He then illustrates aforementioned and understands that this calling is grounded on Christ. He further considers objections to his position that the elect sometimes fall away and responds accordingly (e.g., the son of perdition passage, many are called but few are chosen, etc.)
 Calvin’s Institutes: Chapters 21-24, (This document is from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College. Last updated on May 27, 1999. Contacting the CCEL).