Raymond Martini (C. 1220-C. 1285) was a Catalan Dominican who wrote several works. There’s Explanatio Symboli Apostolorum (A.D. 1257), where he sets forth the basic articles of Christian belief and holds that discursive proofs for God’s existence are superfluous. Then there’s A Muzzle for the Jews (A.D. 1267), which is a polemical work impatiently exhorting for the Jews to embrace Christianity. And lastly there’s The Dagger of the Faith (Pugio fidei) (A.D. 1278) which is a treatise dealing with—God’s existence, the end of man, the immortality of the soul, the creation of the world, God’s knowledge of creatures, and the resurrection of the body.
Another missionary apologist was Raymond Lull (A.D. 1235-1316) a Catalan who is famed or ridiculed for called ars compendiosa inveniendi veritatem (the great art) is a brief technique for finding truth. He authored Book of the Gentile and the Three Wise Men (1273), an allegorical disputation involving a pagan philosopher, a Jew, a Christian, and a Saracen.
SCHOLASTICISM AFTER ST. THOMAS [Pp. 98-103]
John Duns Scotus (A.D. 1266-1308) was an English Franciscan who gave greater weight to the extrinsic evidences in supporting the judgment of faith. He gave ten reasons for the credibility of the Scriptures: Fulfilled prophecies, the Concordant teaching of the texts, the Writers spoke on God’s behalf, the Church’s careful discrimination in drawing up the canon, the Immorality of those who reject the Scriptures, the longevity of the Church as predicted by Christ, the Miraculous conversion of the world to Christianity, the Harmony of the Scripture’s teaching with reason, Josephus’ testimony to Christ, and the comfort experienced by those who become believers.
Nicholas of Lyra (A.D. 1270-1349) was a Franciscan Biblical commentator who made interesting use of the extrinsic signs of credibility in his two apologetic works: In his Proof of the Time of the Incarnation, he uses Scriptural apologetic proofs although they are not altogether clear. He also wrote An Answer to a Certain Jew Who Denounced the Gospel According to Mathew.
Henry Totting of Oyta (A.D. 1397) provides a view of apologetics that distinguishes between intrinsic and extrinsic evidence. The human mind seeks to grasp things through intrinsic reason. However, many elevated truths can only be known through divine revelation and hence are not susceptible to inner demonstration. When an internal necessary reason is absent, the act of faith requires for its rational justification external reasons giving at least a well-grounded probability. Miracles and prophecies were the extrinsic evidences heralded.
FIFTEENTH-CENTURY APOLOGETICS [Pp.103-111]
Catalan Raimundus Sabundus (A.D. death in 1436) wrote “Book of Creatures”, whose main goal was contemplative, not apologetic. It was a: “Natural Theology” treatise aimed at stimulating devotion by allowing the mind to reach to the various stages of the ladder of being to God. His work demonstrates exceptional confidence in the power of reason to prove almost all of the Christian faith, such that one need not appeal to the Bible or the Church.
He saw that there were two books: From nature, And from revelation. He exalted natural knowledge excessively and minimized the supernatural of divine revelation that his book was eventually placed on the Index in 1559. He was not a heretic, but a man of piety.
Denis the Carthusian (died in 1471) wrote on Scripture and scholastic theology. In his Dialogue Concerning the Catholic Faith; the contents are somewhat Anselmian and covers topics such as: The relationship between Faith and reason, Denis Demonstrates that reasonable faith is grounded in God’s words and deeds via the Apostles. He is however grossly incompetent in historical criticism. In His book Against the Perfidy of Mohammed is a refutation of the Koran. Among other things, he shows the general truth of Christian Faith.
He also argues from the miracles of Christ, fulfillment of OT prophecies, the destruction of Jerusalem, the purity of the Church and its doctrines, and Christianity’s expansion despite persecution.
Marsilio Ficino (A.D. 1433-99) was an Italian who first headed up the Platonic Academy at Florence. His main philosophical work was Platonic Theology, which focused on the immortality of the soul. His main apologetical treatise is On the Christian Religion. In both works he uses ratio platonica to argue for Christianity. He held that what separated man from all the other beasts is the natural desire to contemplate God.
He saw that all religion is preferable to irreligion. Christianity is the most perfect religion because of the worship it renders to God. That grace is necessary for true blessedness; that the Incarnation of the Word not only raises human nature to the divine, but all of creation can be brought together as a result. Man is a microcosm. His work breadth, depth and width theologically and philosophically are truly remarkable.
Girolamo Savonarola, the Dominican preacher who wrote an apologetic work titled The Triumph of the Cross. In it, among other things he addresses the issue of man’s destiny that can be shown by reason. As opposed to heavily emphasizing proofs from prophecy and miracles, Savonarola argues from the wisdom and goodness of Christ and how the gospel affects one’s life as a result of accepting its truth.
Conclusion: issues of faith and reason were a tension for medieval apologetics but there were also those who advanced and compared religious studies. The difference between the patristic and medieval apologists was that the former chiefly capitalized on the success of the Church, whereas the latter profited from the reverses of Christendom.