Aurelius Augustine [pp.59-69] (AD 354-430) is the first Western apologist to achieve true eminence as a theologian. He was able to place theology in a highly developed metaphysic of religious knowledge. Of his many apologetic works, the following are:
On the Happy Life, where he notes that man has an insatiable desire for happiness and once the possibility of immortality is known, a drive towards eternal life obtains; An answer to Skeptics; Providence and The Problem of Evil; Of True Religion and On the Usefulness of Belief (AD 390-391); Confessions (AD 397-400).
Augustine’s view of Truth and Reason are the following: First, truth is absolute and above mans’ mind; second, if anything exists that is more excellent than wisdom, it is clearly God; third, to approach God with the mind demands a suitable moral disposition where there’s a: detachment from the senses, restraint of the passions, and an earnest longing for enlightenment. The reason for the aforesaid is because for the mind to see God, it must be illuminated by Him (Mt.16).
For Augustine, “God is better known by what He is not” and God draws the soul not only through reason but also through authority. When it comes to the knowledge of God, he held that one must believe before one seeks understanding. He quotes (Is.7:9) asserting, “If you do not believe you shall not understand”. His view of Socrates and Plato (Greek giants in philosophy) is that they would be Christians had they lived in his time because, according to Augustine, they were so close to Christ.
Augustine’s view of Apostolic succession; First, that belief in Christ is grounded on the unanimous authority of the Church which/because it is historically grounded all the way back to the Apostles. Second, that the Bible was the Book of the Catholic Church and thus undermining the Church would weaken his confidence in the Gospel. Third, that the Churches authority really influenced his belief. Fourth, that both the size, antiquity, and unanimity of its teachers impacted his views.
Augustine’s Apologetic among other things focused on; The Resurrection, Differentiating between miracles and magic for the latter were seen as perpetual, rather than having ceased, the Virgin birth, the Ascension, Fulfilled prophecy, and the Expansion of the Catholic Church. In his Manner of engagement with the opposition, Augustine was placid and urbane perhaps because of what great mercy God had toward him.
Augustin’s City of God is the most brilliant refutation of pagan religions up until his time. It lays down a theology of history from the creation to the final restoration of all things found in Christ.
Paulus Orosius [p.69] was a pupil of Augustine who wrote Seven Books of the History Against the Pagans. These writings are a history from the time of the flood to (AD 417). It was intended to be a supplement to the City of God and climaxes at the birth of Christ.
Salvian [pp.69-70] was a monk from Lerins (AD 439-451) who wrote On the Present Judgment where he focuses on the disasters the various Roman provinces had suffered. He contends that such disasters are evidence of God’s justice, not a case against it. Moreover, he contends that the Romans of old were blessed because of their natural justice, but now are being punished for their immoral corruption.
Conclusion: [pp.70-71] these apologists were not only lively, but Christian apologists are eternally indebted to the Patristic Era of the Church for their boldness in seeking to relate the Biblical revelation to the areas of: the whole of human culture, philosophy, and history. These are worthy to be read and emulated.